United Nations Disarmament Report
Director of UNIDIR Theresa Hitchens
United Nations General Assembly, Sixty-fifth session, Item 101 of the provisional agenda*, Review of the implementation of the recommendations and decisions adopted by the General Assembly at its tenth special session A/65/177
United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research Note by the Secretary-General
The Secretary-General hereby transmits to the General Assembly the report of the Director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research on
- the activities of the Institute for the period from August 2009 to July 2010 and
- the proposed programme of work and
- estimated budget for 2010 and 2011.
The report was considered and approved for submission to the General Assembly by the Board of Trustees of the Institute at the fifty-fourth session of the Secretary-General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters, held from 7 to 9 July 2010.
* A/65/150. 10-46683 (E) 120810 *1046683* Distr.: General 28 July 2010 – Original: English – A/65/177
Report of the Director of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research on the activities of the Institute for the period from August 2009 to July 2010 and the proposed programme of work and budget for 2010-2011
The present report covers the activities of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) from August 2009 to July 2010. The report was considered by the Board of Trustees at the fifty-fourth session of the Secretary- General’s Advisory Board on Disarmament Matters, held from 7 to 9 July 2010. It was prepared in compliance with the 1984 General Assembly resolution 39/148H, in which the Assembly invited the Director of UNIDIR to report annually on the Institute’s activities. The present report highlights the programmatic achievements during this period as well as the implemented reform efforts.
With UNIDIR celebrating its thirtieth anniversary in 2010, the Institute has embarked upon
- institutional reform with the objectives of strengthening its capacity to fulfil its mandate and
- reinvigorate its resource mobilization strategy.
As such, the Institute’s programme of work has been restructured into five categories:
- weapons of mass destruction,
- weapons of societal disruption,
- security and society,
- emerging threats, and
- improving processes and creating synergies.
A subvention from the regular budget is the guarantee of the independence of UNIDIR. In 2005, the General Assembly adopted resolution 60/89 (Verbot des Einsatzes von Kernwaffen – Convention on the Prohibition of the Use of Nuclear Weapons), in which it recommended that
- the Secretary-General implement the relevant recommendations of the Office of Internal Oversight Services and
- the decisions of the Board of Trustees of the Institute, which are that core staff costs be funded from the regular budget, while ways to increase funding are sought within existing resources.
The Director notes that in recent history the subvention has fallen far short of those costs.
By means of this report, the Board of Trustees recommends that the subvention level be increased (in addition to being cost adjusted) in the biennium 2012-2013, in order to meet the costs of the Director and the core staff of the Institute.
The Director also reports on the status of voluntary funds received from Governments and philanthropic foundations, which cover the vast majority (about 90 per cent!!!) of the Institute’s budget and finance all its operational activities.
As voluntary funds have, in the past, come from only a few Member States, UNIDIR has been actively seeking to expand its donor base as part of its resource mobilization strategy.
The Institute’s value to the international community is based on its unique status as an autonomous Institution within the United Nations system, and this independence remains critical to the Institute’s ability to effectively fulfil its mandate to serve all States Members of the United Nations.
I. Introduction…………………………………………………………. 4
A. Visionstatement………………………………………………….. 4
B. Missionstatement…………………………………………………. 5
II. Managementandstaffing……………………………………………….. 5
III. Programmeofwork……………………………………………………. 5
A. Weaponsofmassdestruction…………………………………………. 5
B. Weaponsofsocietaldisruption ……………………………………….. 7
C. Securityandsociety……………………………………………….. 9
D. Emergingthreats………………………………………………….. 10
E. Improvingprocessesandcreatingsynergies………………………………. 12
F. Francophonestrategy………………………………………………. 13
G. Consultativeandadvisoryservices…………………………………….. 13
H. Education……………………………………………………….. 14
I. Outreachanddissemination………………………………………….. 14
IV. Finances: subvention from the United Nations regular budget and voluntary contributions. . . 15
V. Conclusion………………………………………………………….. 16
Annexes I. Incomeandexpenditurefor2008and2009andestimatesfor2010and2011………….. 17
II. Resourcerequirements:2008-2011………………………………………… 18
III. Voluntary contributions for 2008 and 2009 and current status for 2010 and 2011. . . . . . . . . . . 22
IV. Currentstatusof2010estimatedincomefromvoluntarysources…………………… 24
V. Estimated core staff requirements and subvention from the United Nations regular budget for 2010and2011……………………………………………………….. 26
1. The present report covers the activities of the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) during the period from August 2009 to July 2010, and the proposed programme of work and estimated budget for 2010-2011. Of particular importance, is the fact that 2010 marks the thirtieth anniversary of the Institute.
2. Much has changed in the international security context for the work of UNIDIR over the past 30 years. Security problems increasingly cross State boundaries and institutional lines, requiring new commitment by governments to strengthen multilateral and regional institutions and processes, and improve ties with civil society and the private sector. The key for resolving the peace and security issues of the twenty-first century will be in crafting cross-stakeholder approaches.
3. For the past decade, UNIDIR has been at the crest of this wave — focusing on human security, bridge-building and raising awareness about the need for cross- stakeholder cooperation and buy-in in order to make progress towards a more peaceful and prosperous world. For example, in the late 1990s, UNIDIR became one of the path-breaking research organizations for work linking disarmament to human security and development — an approach considered mainstream today. This highlights the unique role of UNIDIR as a trusted member of the United Nations system and disarmament machinery, but at the same time an independent source of information and analysis, and an agent of change.
4. As threats have multiplied and the need for more creative methods for addressing them has grown, UNIDIR has increasingly been requested to provide the international community with ideas for resolving security problems, with ground- breaking research products, with educational activities and with services for the diplomatic community. Yet, the global financial crisis has limited contributions from governments and stretched private sources of funding for disarmament-related action — leading to a seriously degraded fund-raising environment for voluntarily funded organizations such as UNIDIR.
5. In order to address these circumstances, UNIDIR has: restructured its programme of work in keeping with its mandate; strengthened institutional processes related to project development and results-based budgeting; launched a new resource mobilization strategy; and renewed efforts to establish relationships with partner organizations within the United Nations system and in academia and civil society. UNIDIR fully supports increased collaboration among the independent United Nations research and training institutes, believing that the combination of their mandates and strengths will have synergistic results. With continued support from Member States, UNIDIR is confident that these changes will ensure that its work continues to be a valuable contribution to the United Nations community.
A. Vision statement
6. The driving vision of UNIDIR is that of a world in which human security is ensured, where peace prevails over conflict, weapons of mass destruction are eliminated, conventional arms proliferation is avoided, and reduced military spending accompanies global development and prosperity, as envisioned in Article 26 of the United Nations Charter. UNIDIR thus seeks to serve as an agent of progressive change towards those goals.
B. Mission statement
7. As an autonomous research institute within the United Nations, the mission of UNIDIR is to assist the international community in finding and implementing solutions to disarmament and security challenges. Through its research and educational efforts, UNIDIR seeks to further arms control and disarmament, contribute to conflict prevention, and promote the development of a more peaceful and prosperous world. UNIDIR strives to identify new security challenges and threats, and to develop possible methods to address them before they become critical. Finally, UNIDIR serves as a bridge — both among United Nations disarmament, security and development organizations and between the United Nations system and the broader security research community — to create the necessary cross-stakeholder synergies to address and mitigate the effects of insecurity at the international, regional and local level.
II. Management and staffing
8. During the period covered by the present report, the work of UNIDIR was carried out by 22 staff, 2 of whom were directing staff, 3 support staff, 4 substantive programme core staff, and 12 project research staff. The Institute also has 3 Senior Resident Fellows.
9. To give the Institute flexibility to tackle new research areas, researchers are either recruited to work at the Institute on a specific project or else outside experts are commissioned. This permits the Institute to draw on the widest possible variety of backgrounds and disciplines and encourages cooperation with other institutions, experts and scholars. During the reporting period, eight such experts were retained under individual or institutional contracts.
III. Programme of work
10. The work of UNIDIR has been divided into the following five thematic areas of action: weapons of mass destruction; weapons of societal disruption; security and society; emerging threats; and improving processes and creating synergies. This structure will allow the Institute to better ensure that it is fulfilling its mandate to address a wide range of security issues, provide easier “entry points” for users of the Institute’s research, and help donors to focus on areas of interest.
A. Weapons of mass destruction
11. Weapons of mass destruction continue to haunt the world with the threat of global catastrophe. Nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation remain unachieved goals, more than 40 years after the entry into force of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. Despite the global abhorrence of chemical and biological weapons — as witnessed in the Chemical Weapons Convention and
the Biological Weapons Convention — some continue to pursue these weapons. The mandate of UNIDIR places a high priority on work aimed at the elimination of weapons of mass destruction, and the Institute has striven to support progress towards that goal. Projects for the current period include:
1. Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle
12. The three-year project “Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle”, launched in 2008, aims to advance the debate about the potential disarmament and non-proliferation benefits that could result from multilateral fuel-cycle regimes. The project’s first publication contained a comprehensive overview and analysis of existing fuel-cycle proposals, and the second examined the priorities and concerns of non-supplier States as well as identifying areas of potential convergence for suppliers and non-suppliers. The third publication, now in production, will examine the interrelation of the non-proliferation treaty bargain and multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle. In addition to seminars hosted in Geneva in March 2010 and in New York in May 2010, numerous other outreach activities have been undertaken; for example, presentations have been made at nine international conferences and seminars.
2. Entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: new opportunities
13. The project “The entry into Force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty: new opportunities” has been completed. Following the successful launch of the study Unfinished Business: the Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing in the margins of the third session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 Review Conference on the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, held in New York in May 2009, the project’s outreach phase continued with events in Geneva and Vienna.
14. One outreach focus was the applicability of “lessons learned” from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty negotiations to future negotiations of multilateral disarmament agreements. Publication of the study coincided with renewed interest on the part of the Conference on Disarmament in pursuing discussions on fissile materials. The study’s deconstruction of the negotiations and the interactions between diplomats, civil society and scientists has been a boon to a new generation of diplomats of the Conference on Disarmament. UNIDIR hosted an event in Geneva on applying the lessons learned from the Comprehensive Nuclear- Test-Ban Treaty negotiations to efforts to launch negotiations on a fissile material cut-off treaty.
3. Fissile material
15. UNIDIR has promoted work on a fissile material treaty for over 15 years. Its latest project, “Fissile material cut-off treaty: understanding the critical issues”, sought to reacquaint Conference on Disarmament diplomats, and those in capitals, with the history of fissile material cut-off treaty discussions in the Conference on Disarmament, the critical issues for negotiation, and the potential obstacles to a treaty, with the ultimate goal of speeding the eventual start of negotiations.
16. Three seminars were held, concentrating on the issues of verification and scope. The publication A Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty: Understanding the Critical Issues includes papers from those seminars, and a background paper on the Conference on Disarmament’s treatment of the fissile material issue to date and possible negotiating strategies. The publication was officially introduced in the Conference on Disarmament in June 2010. The project has served to deepen the knowledge of Conference on Disarmament diplomats on fissile material cut-off treaty issues, filling an important gap during a period of procedural impasse in the Conference.
4. Future prospects
17. For 2010-2011, UNIDIR continues with the third year of its multilateral fuel- cycle project, as well as with its focus on creating foundations for a fissile material cut-off treaty. Consideration is being given to how UNIDIR might further contribute to the entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, how to address the role of ballistic missiles in nuclear proliferation, and how UNIDIR might aid efforts to shore up the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons in the wake of the 2010 Review Conference. In order to better involve developing countries in nuclear disarmament issues, UNIDIR intends to develop new projects related to Africa and the implementation of the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (Pelindaba) Treaty. Working under the auspices of the Geneva Forum, UNIDIR will continue to be active in assisting diplomats to prepare for the seventh Review Conference of the Biological Weapons Convention in 2011.
B. Weapons of societal disruption
18. The human suffering caused by conventional weapons and warfare is horrific. The use of conventional weapons in conflict zones has an immediate impact on local societies, causing death, destruction and societal breakdown. In addition, the easy accessibility of weapons allows violence to fester in crisis regions, creating medium and long-term effects that weaken every aspect of society including socio-economic development, government structures, health and education. In particular, as recognized by the Programme of Action on Small Arms and Light Weapons, illicit trafficking in conventional weapons has led to severe societal disruption and ineffective governance. UNIDIR has long been at the forefront in aiding United Nations efforts to combat this, as well as in supporting initiatives linking armed violence and development, such as the Geneva Declaration and efforts to attain the Millennium Development Goals.
1. Promoting discussion on an arms trade treaty
19. Between February 2009 and May 2010, UNIDIR implemented a project for the European Union to promote discussion on an arms trade treaty. The project, based on a decision of the Council of the European Union on support for European Union activities in order to promote among third countries the process leading towards an arms trade treaty, within the framework of the European Security Strategy, consisted of six regional seminars, together with other activities.
20. The objectives were to promote the participation of all stakeholders in the discussions around an arms trade treaty, to integrate national, regional and international approaches, and to contribute to identifying the scope and implications of a possible treaty. The project facilitated the exchange of views among States,
regional organizations and civil society — views which serve as important inputs to current discussions and debate on an arms trade treaty. The project also resulted in increased awareness about an arms trade treaty among United Nations Member States and other stakeholders, such as members of civil society and industry.
21. UNIDIR also supports the arms trade treaty process by organizing seminars and other activities to explore specific aspects of an eventual treaty. In November 2009, UNIDIR organized a seminar in Geneva to discuss a theme that had emerged in the regional seminars, namely, how non-State actors could and should be addressed in an arms trade treaty.
22. The symposium “Towards an arms trade treaty”, co-organized with the League of Arab States, was held on 29 and 30 June 2010 in Cairo, and a seminar is planned in Geneva following the first meeting of the Preparatory Committee for the United Nations Conference on the Arms Trade Treaty to discuss how to move discussions on a treaty forward in 2011.
2. Cluster munitions
23. Issue No. 1, 2010, of Disarmament Forum is dedicated to implementation of the Convention on Cluster Munitions, which enters into force on 1 August 2010. The Convention bans the use, production, stockpiling and transfer of cluster munitions. In addition, the treaty addresses victim assistance, clearance, stockpile destruction and cooperation and assistance. The above-mentioned issue of Disarmament Forum examines what will be required to implement those commitments.
3. Implementing the programme of action
24. UNIDIR continued to work on strengthening the effectiveness of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects as the only internationally agreed instrument dealing with that issue.
4. Small arms and light weapons assistance
25. In order to facilitate the implementation of the Programme of Action, UNIDIR has developed a mechanism to help States match assistance needs and resources. It has been given to the Office for Disarmament Affairs and added to the United Nations Programme of Action implementation support system; the initiative was warmly welcomed by the Member States during the fourth Biennial Meeting of States on Small Arms held in June 2010. In addition, UNIDIR was invited to present keynote remarks to the plenary session of the Meeting, which focused on the issue of small arms and light weapons assistance and cooperation.
5. Matching needs and resources
26. Under the project “Implementing the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms: a checklist for matching needs and resources”, UNIDIR developed a tool that is designed to help States identify the types of assistance they may require to address small arms and light weapons concerns. The checklist has received positive feedback from States and field organizations and UNIDIR is producing Spanish and French translations, which will be available on the UNIDIR website.
6. Aid effectiveness
27. UNIDIR continues to specialize in the issue of small arms and light weapons assistance. In 2009-2010, UNIDIR has been promoting its research on improving aid effectiveness in small arms and light weapons assistance, which builds on work undertaken previously. The project assesses existing aid effectiveness frameworks, namely, the Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action, and explores their applicability to small arms and light weapons assistance. The publication Searching for Aid Effectiveness in Small Arms Assistance was launched in the margins of the fourth Biennial Meeting of States.
7. Future prospects
28. A follow-on arms trade treaty project, with a continued focus on regional action, is being developed with the European Union and will be launched in July 2010 during the meeting of the Preparatory Committee in New York. UNIDIR is in the early stages of a follow-on project on aid effectiveness that will run until 2011, with an eye to the 2012 Review Conference.
C. Security and society
29. UNIDIR was a pioneer in developing thinking about disarmament as a human security issue and in establishing the theme of “disarmament as humanitarian action”. There is growing recognition of the need for national, regional and international peace and security institutions to focus on local problems and security needs in order to prevent conflicts and overcome their consequences.
1. The road from Oslo: analysis of negotiations to address the humanitarian effects of cluster munitions
30. In May 2008, 107 States adopted a treaty banning cluster munitions. The road from Oslo project followed the process leading to this treaty. The resulting study, Unacceptable Harm: A History of How the Treaty to Ban Cluster Munitions Was Won, examines how the treaty was achieved, why it took so long for the world to act, why it eventually did, and what lessons might be learned for the future. Outreach events were held in Geneva, Oslo and London. The project team maintained a topical blog at http://disarmamentinsight.blogspot.com/ and made numerous presentations on cluster munitions to various audiences. The project is now completed.
2. Discourse on explosive weapons
31. In January 2010, UNIDIR commenced the project “Discourse on explosive weapons”, building on the earlier “Disarmament as Humanitarian Action” project and the findings of the above-mentioned cluster munitions study. The project involves working with practitioners in the field of arms control/disarmament and humanitarian action to examine how to enhance the protection of civilians from explosive weapons. Several symposiums are envisaged for 2010, the first of which was held on 29 April in Geneva and focused on framing the issues. A background paper and summary report, as well as downloadable content, will be made available on the UNIDIR website and on the project’s website (http://explosiveweapons.info/).
3. Security Needs Assessment Protocol
32. Since 2005, the Security Needs Assessment Protocol project has been aiming to improve the effectiveness of field-level programming on security and peace. It has been developing methods for understanding local social systems, so that agencies can better respond to local needs. The project has also been building new processes to help agencies make use of local knowledge when designing programmes and policies. Many United Nations agencies are now recognizing the need to attend to local security challenges to implement their own humanitarian action and development goals.
4. Future prospects
33. The “Discourse on explosive weapons” project will continue into 2011, seeking to expand the dialogue and forge options for future progress.
34. The Security Needs Assessment Protocol team now seeks to help agencies to design locally informed, sustainable solutions to problems related to issues such as small arms, disarmament, demobilization and reintegration, and post-conflict stabilization programming, in order to meet the security needs of communities in line with international agreements.
35. Building on its past work on small arms and light weapons, gender and peacebuilding, in 2011 UNIDIR intends to work more intensively on issues related to armed violence, development and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.
D. Emerging threats
36. One of the strengths of UNIDIR has been its role as an “early warning system” for trends that could emerge as serious threats to international peace and security. Raising awareness of emerging threats at an early stage is critical, as the gears of international diplomacy turn slowly.
37. There has been increasing concern within the international community on the issues surrounding cybersecurity. UNIDIR has long been engaged in elucidating cybersecurity issues, starting with a conference on the subject in 1999. Pursuant to General Assembly resolution 63/37 of December 2008, a Group of Governmental Experts on the issue of information security was established. UNIDIR serves as a consultant to the Group, which began work in November 2009 and will conclude in July 2010.
38. The Institute has been exploring expanded cooperation with other actors, such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the United Nations Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI), the International Organization of la Francophonie, and various research institutes. In February 2010, ITU, UNICRI and UNIDIR submitted a joint letter to the Secretary-General suggesting that the United Nations Chief Executives Board for Coordination take up the issue of cybersecurity. The three organizations have begun to coordinate activities to raise awareness of the threats of cybercrime and cyberwar.
2. Space security
39. The question of space security and the threat of an arms race in outer space have become ever more pressing over the last decade. UNIDIR has been involved in research and awareness-raising on the threats to the peaceful uses of outer space since the mid-1980s, and in 2002 held the first of its annual conferences on outer space security.
40. The ninth conference, “Space security 2010: from foundations to negotiations”, was held in Geneva on 29 and 30 March 2010. It explored the technological constraints and opportunities for a space security regime; elaborated on the latest developments in efforts to craft solutions to the space security puzzle; and considered what lessons previous arms control and confidence-building negotiations might have for future negotiations of instruments for securing space. The report of the conference is in production.
41. The report of the 2009 conference, Space security 2009: moving towards a safer space environment, was published in mid-2009 and was submitted by the Government of Canada to the Conference on Disarmament.
42. Issue No. 4, 2009, of Disarmament Forum, entitled “A safer space environment?”, explored strengthening the space security regime and potential ways forward for the international community.
43. UNIDIR helped to organize the conference “Improving our vision IV” on space situational awareness, held in London on 21 and 22 June 2010 and co-sponsored by the United States Air Force Academy’s Eisenhower Center on Space and Defense, Secure World Foundation, Inmarsat and Intelsat.
3. Maritime security
44. Issue No. 2, 2010 of Disarmament Forum, focused on maritime security — a topic touching on some of the most critical current security challenges. There is rising concern about illicit transfers of weapons or materials by sea, and increased levels of piracy that may be linked to terrorist activities. The above-mentioned issue examined how maritime security risks are being addressed, possible improvements to shipping safety and security, and cooperative measures to lessen the risk of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction via the sea lanes.
4. Future prospects
45. ITU and UNIDIR are discussing the coordination of a cybersecurity side event during the October 2010 First Committee meeting, as well as potential collaboration on the creation of a cybersecurity lexicon for use by diplomats and policymakers. In addition, UNIDIR has been having discussions with the Center for Strategic and International Studies and with the International Organization of la Francophonie regarding joint projects.
46. UNIDIR is exploring a number of new cooperative activities on outer space with related United Nations bodies, including the Committee for the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, and interested think tanks and charitable foundations.
E. Improving processes and creating synergies
47. Establishing multilateral and regional disarmament instruments — whether through General Assembly or Security Council resolutions, regional regimes or multilateral treaties — is only the first step in what is often a long and complicated road to results. The status of UNIDIR provides it with a unique position from which to assess the success of disarmament instruments, analyse the weaknesses, and recommend improved processes and better methods of stakeholder cooperation.
1. Resolution 1540 (2004) and the role of regional organizations
48. Phase two of the UNIDIR-Monterey Institute of International Studies project on the role of regional organizations in implementing Security Council resolution 1540 (2004) is nearing completion. Phase two has focused on the dissemination of findings and recommendations from Phase one, as published in the 2008 book entitled “Implementing Resolution 1540: the Role of Regional Organizations”.
49. A number of regional workshops have been held on the implementation of the resolution, creating significant momentum for promoting regional approaches. These events are important contexts in which UNIDIR has underscored the opportunities and benefits that active implementation of the resolution would bring, and the role that regional and subregional organizations can play in the process.
2. Fixing the broken disarmament machinery
50. Following the work done by UNIDIR in 2009 on the Conference on Disarmament, this project seeks to further the Institute’s work in diagnosing and attempting to resolve problems with the disarmament machinery of the United Nations. The Secretary-General’s meeting planned for September 2010, aimed at helping to overcome the impasse at the Conference on Disarmament, will be one focus, and the project will include working papers and a strategy meeting for exploring options towards progress.
3. Addressing illicit brokering activities: issues and control
51. Illicit brokering of small and light weapons has received much attention in recent years, but States also face challenges posed by illicit brokering of materials, equipment and technology related to weapons of mass destruction. In its resolution 63/67 the General Assembly called upon Member States to establish appropriate national laws and measures to prevent illicit brokering and encouraged them to fully implement relevant international treaties, instruments and resolutions. As the General Assembly will return to the issue at its sixty-fifth session, Disarmament Forum, issue no. 3, 2009, entitled “Tackling illicit brokering”, examined recent initiatives to combat illicit brokering and methods to help States to improve implementation.
52. On 30 June 2010, UNIDIR hosted a seminar in Geneva examining the issue of illicit brokering in all its aspects. The Institute also co-hosted “Reinforcing disarmament: combating illicit trade in weapons and materials — actors, synergies, challenges” in partnership with the Geneva Centre for Security Policy and the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung in February 2010 in Geneva.
4. Planning for crisis management and peacebuilding
53. Post-conflict peacebuilding is a core competence of the United Nations, and the European Union is one of the principal United Nations donors in post-conflict contexts. Yet, peacebuilding remains contested conceptually and in practice. This project helped to elucidate why this is so and made recommendations on how to strengthen the European Union-United Nations operational relationship to improve peacebuilding interventions. A report, EU-UN Cooperation in Peacebuilding: Partners in Practice?, was produced, which informed the 2010 review of the Peacebuilding Commission and the European Union’s internal structuring of its peacebuilding work. A session of the European Union Working Group on the United Nations was dedicated to discussing those findings, and the United Nations Peacebuilding Support Office has also expressed interest in the report.
5. Future prospects
54. The European Commission has proposed follow-up outreach meetings in 2010 to publicize the findings of the report on European Union-United Nations peacebuilding cooperation.
55. The project “Searching for aid effectiveness” is also an example of how existing tools/mechanisms can be adapted to small arms and light weapons issues. In view of the great interest in this issue shown during the fourth Biennial Meeting of States, UNIDIR is considering a follow-up project that can feed into the ongoing processes within the United Nations.
F. Francophone strategy
56. UNIDIR will soon engage in a partnership with the International Organization of la Francophonie. International peace and security require better adaptability of international actions to national and regional specificities. In order to support negotiations in disarmament processes, as well as enhance the implementation of research findings, it is necessary to better understand local and regional issues. One of the major elements that can help this process is the dissemination of knowledge in the working languages of the targeted countries. The Francophone strategy is a new step in the continuing implementation of the UNIDIR mandate to serve all Member States, by broadening its audience through linguistic diversification.
G. Consultative and advisory services
57. One significant indicator of the impact of the work and reputation of UNIDIR is the number of requests it receives for consultative or advisory services. The staff of the Institute is called upon regularly to advise, consult with or brief interested parties. These activities, undertaken in addition to the Institute’s programme of work, enrich the efforts of other organizations, educate stakeholders, strengthen collaboration and disseminate research findings. These requests come from within the United Nations system, from Member States, international, multilateral and regional organizations, research institutes, academic bodies, the media and civil society groups. Recognizing the opportunity and value of such activities, UNIDIR is determined to further develop this aspect of its work.
58. UNIDIR continues to attach utmost importance to disarmament and non-proliferation education and training, and thus to the implementation of the relevant recommendations of the 2002 study on disarmament and non-proliferation education (A/57/124). During the period from August 2009 to July 2010, UNIDIR has focused on improving its delivery of educational materials, in the appropriate formats and to the right audiences. Particular emphasis has been placed on expanding production and dissemination of materials in languages other than English (recommendation 3); producing user-friendly educational materials such as Disarmament Forum (recommendation 2); actively using information and communication technologies both to reach new audiences and to deliver content in innovative ways (recommendations 4 and 21); developing disarmament-related curricular content, with the University for Peace and other academic institutions (recommendation 7); and on-the-job training through its internship and visiting fellows programme (recommendations 19 and 24).
59. UNIDIR is a founding member of the Geneva Forum, along with the Quaker United Nations Office and the Centre on Conflict, Development and Peacebuilding of the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies. The Geneva Forum hosts educational briefings for Geneva-based diplomats.
60. UNIDIR is currently developing a project with the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies addressing disarmament education, focused particularly on the Global South. In addition, after signing a memorandum of understanding with the University for Peace in May 2010, the Institute is exploring long-term cooperative projects focused on educating graduate students and young diplomats.
I. Outreach and dissemination
61. The UNIDIR outreach and dissemination strategy continues to expand, with particular emphasis on consolidating the Institute’s visual identity, formalizing its electronic document series, expanding its output in languages other than English, and exploring new avenues for dissemination, including ongoing updates to the UNIDIR website to make it more accessible and user-friendly.
62. In honour of its tenth anniversary, UNIDIR introduced a new format to its quarterly bilingual journal, Disarmament Forum. It is now easier to read and has a more modern feel, and thus sets the scene for its next decade. Disarmament Forum will continue to provide new data and perspectives on security issues that matter to policymakers and decision makers from all Member States.
63. As part of the Institute’s commitment to timely analysis, it is critical to disseminate materials on rapidly evolving, high-impact subjects. Thus, UNIDIR has launched its electronic document series “UNIDIR Resources”, available on its website.
IV. Finances: subvention from the United Nations regular budget and voluntary contributions
64. The activities of UNIDIR are sustained by voluntary contributions from only a few United Nations Member States and a subvention from the regular budget.
65. In accordance with article VII.1 of the UNIDIR statute, voluntary contributions are the principal source of financing for the Institute (around 90 per cent), and are received from Governments and foundations on a project-by-project basis. As part of its fund-raising strategy, UNIDIR has focused on expanding the base of Member State donors. For example, in 2010, the Institute received first-time contributions from Estonia, Hungary and Pakistan.
66. With regard to the subvention, article VII.2 of the UNIDIR statute establishes that the subvention is towards meeting the costs of the Director and the core staff of the Institute. However, the subvention for many years has covered the costs of only one core staff member (the Director) out of the total core staff of nine (see annex V); thus core staff costs continue to be absorbed by voluntary funding.
67. In recent years, support for the maintenance and increase of the regular budget subvention has been manifested on numerous occasions. In 2004, the Secretary- General considered the continuing need for a subvention for UNIDIR and concluded that the regular budget subvention was vital for ensuring the independent and continuous nature of the Institute’s normal functioning (A/C.5/59/3/Add.1, para. 27). In 2005, the General Assembly adopted resolution 60/89 in which it recommended that the Secretary-General implement the relevant recommendations of the Office of Internal Oversight Services and the decisions of the UNIDIR Board of Trustees that the costs of the core staff of the Institute be funded from the regular budget of the United Nations, and that ways to increase funding within existing resources continue to be sought. Support has also been expressed by individual Member States for greater regular budget support for the core staff of the Institute.
68. In November 2009, the Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions requested a subvention to UNIDIR for the biennium 2010-2011. An amount of $558,200 subsequently was approved by the General Assembly in section III of its resolution 64/245 for a subvention from the regular budget of the United Nations for 2010-2011.
69. The Board of Trustees continues to attach utmost importance to the granting of a subvention to the Institute from a financial perspective, as well as to safeguard the autonomy and independence of the Institute. Continuing support for an increase in the subvention and for continuing cost adjustment is essential to facilitating growth in voluntary income for the Institute. By means of the present report, the Board of Trustees recommends that the subvention level be increased (in addition to being cost adjusted) in the biennium 2012-2013 in order — at minimum — to meet the costs of the Director and core staff of the Institute.
70. The budget for 2010 is estimated at $4,866,800 and for 2011 at $3,177,100 (see annexes). However, the 2011 figures include only projects that are currently confirmed; this estimate will therefore increase as the Institute receives pledges for projects under development.
71. Despite the difficult economic and security environment facing the international community today, there remain many opportunities to further disarmament, peace and security. Building on its 30 years of experience and its network, UNIDIR, as a valued independent voice, will continue to pursue methods to do so.
Income and expenditure for 2008 and 2009 and estimates for 2010 and 2011
(In thousands of United States dollars)
C. D. E. F. G. H.
a b c d e f g
2010 2008 2009 (estimates)
292.7 0.0 10.0 0.0
0.0 0.0 0.0
3 177.1 2 651.4 525.7j
Funds available at the beginning of the year
Voluntary contributions and public donations
Subvention from the United Nations regular budget
Other inter-organizational contributions Interest income Miscellaneous income
Prior-period adjustments Refund to donors Prior-period obligations Total funds available Expenditure
Fund balance at the end of the year
243.1 18.0d 44.8 8.2
-10.0h -65.0i 22.5 3 714.8 2 455.3 1 259.5a
1 259.5a 1 043.1b
2 399.4e 3 495.7f
315.1 265.5 10.0e 42.5f 37.6 20.0 16.7 0.0
2 778.8 3 823.7
19.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
4 057.6 4 866.8
3 014.5 3 034.4 1 043.1b 1 832.4c
Includes $308,700 required as operating cash reserve for 2008. Includes $329,200 required as operating cash reserve for 2009. Includes $341,500 required as operating cash reserve for 2010. See annex III for details of UNIDIR 2008 income from voluntary sources. See annex III for details of UNIDIR 2009 income from voluntary sources. See annex III for details of UNIDIR 2010 estimated income from voluntary sources. See annex III for details of UNIDIR 2011 estimated income from voluntary sources. The estimates for 2011 contributions are conservative. Experience shows that they will be much higher but this cannot, of course, be guaranteed at this stage.
Reversal of Mexican contribution of $10,000. Refund to Norway for the project entitled “Including women in disarmament, demobilization and reintegration processes through better research, training and education” due to modification of the project upon agreement of the donor. Includes $245,200 required as operating cash reserve for 2011.
Resource requirements: 2008-2011
(In thousands of United States dollars)
2008 Resource requirements (1)
2010a 2009 (estimates) (2) (3)
750.4 719.2 0.0 74.6 17.5 16.9 61.8 76.8 247.5 278.6 479.0 1 327.9 163.8 116.7 0.2 6.5 4.1 3.0 113.0 192.3 18.9 22.6 1.5 7.7 7.0 8.5 6.1 14.0
896.9 2 902.5
014.5 3 034.4
2011a (estimates) (4)
729.5 65.7 14.4 35.3 430.6 888.1 70.6 2.2 3.0 257.9 9.8 3.2 8.5 14.0
Increase/ decrease (4-3)
10.3 -8.9 -2.5
-41.5 152.0 -439.8 -46.1 -4.3 0.0 65.6 -12.8 -4.5 0.0 0.0
Direct administrative costs
Salaries and related staff costs 594.1 General temporary assistance 153.8 Temporary assistance for meetings 18.4 Consultants’ fees and travel 53.8 Ad hoc expert groups 114.4 Other personnel-related costs 1 235.8 Official travel of staff 123.6 Other external printing 0.6 Other specialized training 3.4 Contractual services 2.4 Hospitality 14.9 Premises: rental and maintenance 0.7 Operating expenses 5.8 Communications 0.5 Supplies, materials, furniture and
Total A 2 339.0
Programme support costs
(5% of Total A, less United Nations subvention) 116.3
Total expenditure (Total A + B) 2 455.3
C. Operating cash reserve
(15% of expenditure on contributions other than from the European Union, less United Nations subvention, and 5% on contributions from the European Union) 308.7
3 343.7 3 375.9
a These figures may be increased upon the confirmation of new funding proposals.
Direct programme and administrative costs for 2011
Pending approval of new fund-raising submissions, the provisions made for research programmes and administrative costs are minimalist. However, they will be increased as funding comes forward.
In July 2010 UNIDIR will start a new 24-month project on an arms trade treaty, that will be financed by the European Commission and will consist in the organization of large regional seminars on the topic. In 2010, besides the opening meeting, one regional seminar is planned and in 2011, four regional seminars will be organized, resulting in increased provisions under ad hoc expert groups and contractual services.
Salaries and related staff costs: $729,500. These estimated requirements are needed to cover the salaries and related staff costs of UNIDIR regular staff. They reflect an increase of $10,300 over the 2010 revised requirements. In 2011, the regular staff will consist of the Director (D-2), the Deputy Director (D-1) and two General Service staff. The total estimated requirements under this heading are based on the standard salary costs applicable to Geneva for 2011 (version 5), less the overhead transferred from the general temporary assistance account by the Security Needs Assessment Protocol project to the UNIDIR main account ($65,700):
Total net Common salaries staff costs
D-2 215.6 81.7 D-1 200.7 76.0
297.9 276.7 220.6
2 General Service
Security Needs Assessment Protocol overhead
General temporary assistance: $65,700. This amount, reflecting a decrease of $8,900 over the 2010 revised budget estimates, corresponds to the overhead paid by the Security Needs Assessment Protocol project to UNIDIR (see above paragraph).
Temporary assistance for meetings: $14,400. This provision will be needed to cover temporary assistance for UNIDIR meetings in 2011. It represents a $2,500 decrease over the 2010 revised budget estimates as the interpretation costs of the regional seminars on an arms trade treaty will be included in the contracts with the hotels.
Consultants’ fees and travel: $35,300. This provision will be needed to hire individual contractors for translation work ($5,000) and travel of a consultant for the project on Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle ($1,000) as well as consultants’ fees for the project on an arms trade treaty ($29,300). This entails a decrease of $41,500 over the 2010 estimated requirements but the budget requirements under this heading will increase as new projects are funded.
Ad hoc expert groups: $430,600. This provision will be needed to cover the travel expenses of experts participating in the 2011 conference on outer space security ($20,000), the seminars on Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle ($8,500), the seminar on the United Nations Programme of Action on Small Arms ($28,400) and the opening conference and four regional seminars for the project on an arms trade treaty ($373,700). This reflects an increase of $152,000 over the 2010
budget requirements, which is due to the increased number of regional seminars on an arms trade treaty in 2011 (4 instead of 1 in 2010).
Other personnel related costs: $888,100. This provision will be needed to extend the contracts of the in-house staff working on current projects. These estimated requirements reflect a decrease of $439,800 over the 2010 revised requirements, as several projects are ending in 2010. This provision will increase as new projects are funded and established.
Official travel of staff: $70,600. The estimated requirements for travel of staff in 2011 will be used for project-related travel, that is, Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle ($13,100), arms trade treaty — Phase two ($39,500), and for non-project-related travel — including travel for fund-raising purposes ($18,000). The requirements for travel of staff show a decrease of $46,100 over the 2010 revised estimates because several projects are ending in 2010 and because part of the accommodation of staff participating in the regional seminars on an Arms Trade Treaty will be paid by contract directly to the hotels. However, the provision under this heading will increase as new projects are funded.
Other external printing: $2,200. This provision will be needed to purchase photos for the publications’ cover pages. It reflects a decrease of $4,300 over the 2010 revised budget requirements, but may increase when new projects are funded.
Other specialized training: $3,000. This provision, reflecting no change over the 2010 revised budget requirements, will be needed for continuous learning activities.
Contractual services: $257,900. This provision, reflecting an increase of $65,600 over the 2010 budget requirements, will mainly be used to contract hotels for the accommodation of the four regional seminars on an arms trade treaty ($253,900) and to extend the existing contractual services for the website ($4,000).
Hospitality: $9,800. The estimated requirements for hospitality in 2011 reflect a decrease of $12,800 over the 2010 revised estimates. This is due to the fact that most of the hospitality extended to participants in the regional seminars on an arms trade treaty will be part of the contracts with the hotels.
Premises: rental and maintenance: $3,200. This provision will be needed to cover the rental of conference rooms for the regional seminars on an arms trade treaty. It reflects a decrease of $4,500 over the 2010 revised estimates, because the conference room rentals for the seminars will be part of the contracts with the hotels.
Operating expenses: $8,500. This provision, reflecting no change over the 2010 revised estimates, will be used to cover the rental of office equipment ($1,600), the rental of conference service equipment ($5,900) and bank charges ($1,000).
Communication: $14,000. This provision will be needed to reimburse the United Nations Office at Geneva for fixed and mobile phone usage costs, and to pay traffic- related costs, and the rental of cell phones for the field missions. These estimated requirements represent no change over the 2010 revised estimates.
Supplies and materials and furniture and equipment: $6,300. This provision reflects a decrease of $30,900 over the 2010 estimated requirements, mainly because the purchase of all equipment for the project on an arms trade treaty, including the USB keys to be distributed to all participants in the regional seminars, will be made
in 2010. The funds will be used to purchase office equipment ($2,000), stationery and office supplies ($1,000), library books ($2,000), and subscriptions ($1,300). The estimate may increase if new projects are funded.
B. Programme support costs
A provision of $112,300 representing 5 per cent of the total estimated expenditure, less the amount of the United Nations regular budget subvention of $292,700, will be needed for programme support costs in 2011.
C. Operating cash reserve
In compliance with administrative instruction ST/AI/284, an amount of $245,200 will be kept as operating cash reserve. It represents 15 per cent of the total 2011 estimated expenditure funded from extrabudgetary resources with the exception of the expenditure funded by the European Commission, for which a 5 per cent rate is applied.
Voluntary contributions for 2008 and 2009 and current status for 2010 and 2011
(United States dollars)
A. Governmental contributionsb Australia
Austria Canada China Estonia Finland France Germany 0 Holy See 0 Hungary 0 India 0
112 914 125 839 18 576 0 35 344 0 18 000 19 985
0 1 000 58 140
293 288 315 300 0 36 630 10 000 10 000 999 0 0 9 982 0 20 535 13 206 10 211 0 0 9 843 19 973 5 000 5 000 326 301 358 704 0 0 179 675 679 209 30 000 30 000 100 000 100 000 86 155 40 000 93 340 87 419 5 000 3 000
109 847 67 358
1 505 628 1 940 145
869 535 1 443 825
0 0 0 92 171 0 2 500
15 000 0
0 15 000 20 000 0 0 320 000 0 10 000 0 10 000 15 000 10 000 0 10 000 5 000 0 0 120 000 30 000 100 000 0 70 000 3 000
0 0 0 0
Ireland Israel Japan Luxembourg Mexico Netherlands New Zealand Norway Republic of Koreac Russian Federation Sweden Switzerland Turkey
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Total governmental contributions
B. Public donations European Commission
Graduate Institute for International Studies
Marie Curie Foundation Northeastern University Secure World Foundation
30 000 9 694 32 625 7 396 10 000 125 573 23 799 571 346 50 000 100 000 40 000 67 072 5 000
1 727 456
3 588 0 0 6 877
98 530 78 864 15 017 19 985
0 62 208 343 250
Simons Foundation University of Bath University of Geneva University for Peace
Total public donations
Total voluntary contributions (A + B)
C. Interorganization Office for Disarmament Affairs
38 780 0 9 174 0
1 785 875
9 047 14 985 0 1 710 0 0 200 369
893 782 1 555 560
2 399 410 3 495 705
10 000 42 500
10 000 42 500
2 409 410 3 538 205
15 000 0 0 0
1 042 000
1 042 000
a These figures will be increased upon the confirmation of new funding proposals. b A contribution of $5,000 from Pakistan is not included here, as the contribution was
received after the figures were officially approved. c This table shows a $50,000 contribution from the Republic of Korea for 2008, out of which
$20,000 was paid in December 2007 but earmarked for 2008, as requested by the Permanent Mission of the Republic of Korea to the United Nations Office at Geneva, in its note to UNIDIR dated 10 December 2007 and $30,000 was paid on 15 December 2008 and earmarked for 2009.
Current status of 2010 estimated income from voluntary sources
(United States dollars)
Total amount of Donor contributions
To be used for
A. Governmental contributions Australiaa
Chinab Estoniac Franced Germanye Holy See India Irelandf Israel Luxembourg Mexico Netherlandsg Norwayh Republic of Korea Russian Federation Swedeni Switzerlandj Turkey
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Irelandi
Total governmental contributions
B. Public donations European Commissionk Marie Curie Foundationl Northeastern University Simons Foundationb University of Bath University for Peace
Total public donations
Total voluntary contributions (A + B)
125 839 19 985 1 000 315 300 36 630 10 000 9 982 20 535 10 211 19 973 5 000 358 704 679 209 30 000 100 000 40 000 87 419 3 000
443 825 92 171 2 500 14 985 1 710 369
29 8 7 16 8 15 4 286 447 24 80 32 21 2
1 299 82 2 11 1
671 988 800
0 304 000 986 428 169 978 000 963 367 000 000 000 935 400
443 954 000 988 368 295
Other purposes (including administrative costs)
25 168 3 997 200 315 300 7 326 2 000 1 996 4 107 2 042 3 995 1 000 71 741 231 842 6 000 20 000 8 000 65 484 600
144 382 9 217 500 2 997 342 74
Total amount of contributions
2 587 923
Other purposes (including administrative costs)
a b c d e f
Interorganization Office for Disarmament Affairs
For work on the Programme of Action on Small Arms. For the 2011 conference on outer space security. For “Supporting the potential of the conference on disarmament”. For the Deputy Director’s post. For work on small arms. $14,430 for Disarmament Forum and $6,105 for “Building a framework for small arms and light weapons aid effectiveness: opportunities and challenges”. For “Security Needs Assessment Protocol — Phase 2”. $120,000 for core funding, $437,453,52 for “Discourse on explosive weapons and $121,755.95 for developments in the Conference on Disarmament. For work on “Multilateral approaches to the nuclear fuel cycle”. $69,084.63 for core funding, $9708,74 last instalment for “Creating a new dynamic for public-private partnerships for peaceful and sustainable development: human security and equitable access to resources”, and $8,625.58 for “Fissile material cut-off treaty: understanding the critical issue”. For “Support for European Union activities in order to promote among third countries the process leading towards an arms trade treaty. Last instalment for European Union and United Nations planning for crisis management and peacebuilding: promoting best practice and inter-institutional learning.
To be used for
Estimated core staff requirements and subvention from the United Nations regular budget for 2010 and 2011
(In thousands of United States dollars)
Core staff 2010 2011
297.9 276.7 220.6 125.9
95.2 95.2 66.9 95.2 47.6
292.7 1 028.5
Deputy Director Two General Service staff Projects and Publications Manager Project Development and Fund-raising Assistant Editor, publications Computer System Manager French translator for Disarmament Forum Editor, Disarmament Forum
Total core staff costs
Subvention from the United Nations regular budgeta Covered by voluntary contributions and public donations
Percentage covered by the regular budget subvention
276.7 219.2 125.0
94.5 94.5 66.1 94.5 47.3
265.5 1 050.2
a An amount of $558,200 was approved by the General Assembly in its resolution 64/245 for the United Nations regular budget subvention for 2010-2011.